Top-Down To Bottom-Up: Unmaking Of Ataturk And Making Of Erdogan’s Turkey

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk founded the Turkish Republic and shaped it through top-down Westernization and the suppression of religious citizens

President Recep Tayyip Erdogan overcame decades-old domination of secularists, who saw themselves as the guardians of the secular Turkish Republic Mustafa Kemal Ataturk founded and shaped through sweeping top-down Westernization and suppression of religious citizens

Mustansiriya University: Islamic Golden Age Remnant, Among World’s First

A tapering gateway of inscriptions and geometric themes now leads to Mustansiriya University, one of the world’s oldest universities which survived the Mongol onslaught, floods, and manmade and natural calamities that claimed much of Baghdad’s heritage over centuries