Top-Down To Bottom-Up: Unmaking Of Ataturk And Making Of Erdogan’s Turkey

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk founded the Turkish Republic and shaped it through top-down Westernization and the suppression of religious citizens

President Recep Tayyip Erdogan overcame decades-old domination of secularists, who saw themselves as the guardians of the secular Turkish Republic Mustafa Kemal Ataturk founded and shaped through sweeping top-down Westernization and suppression of religious citizens

How Turkey’s Repressive Secularism Helped Rise Of Erdogan

Turkey elections may head for run-off as Erdogan fails to get 50% votes

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the secular Turkish republic, banned Sufi orders, put mosques under government control, mandated officials to wear European-style brimmed hats, and banned Arabic as part of sweeping measures to impose secularism on Turks